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96 



JOURNAL, BOMBAY NATURAL MIST. SOCIETY, Vol. 90 



The bird continued to call for the next five 
minutes and was joined by a fenia'e which perched 
next to the male. In the next three minutes the fesr ' S 
once uttered a call similar to that of the male. 

Later the female flew over and alighted on a 
neighbouring horizontal branch (10 cm in diameter) 
closely followed by the male. On alighting the female 
squatted across and crouched low. aver the, branch. 
The male which had alighted next to ihe female, 
sidled up and mounted the female. The male copu- 
lated vigorously, gripping the wing bases of the 
female with its feet and thrashing its wings to main- 
tain balance. The wings of the female drooped low, 
while the tail of the male was under its belly. TJ e 
process lasted for about 10 seconds and we presume 



it resulted in effective coitus. Both birds remained 
silent during the act. 

/uter the copulation the male flew back to the 
branch vhere it was seen earlier and started preening. 
The pair remained within the canopy of A. umara for 
the next 20 minutes, before flying into the dense 
canopy of a 10 m tall Terminalia bellerka about 
40 m away. The mating took place between 1030 and 
1110 his and wifen the canopy. 

cat has not been seen before in Ban- 
ga?ore. 

J. N. PRASAD 1 
st 4, 1991 A. MADHUSUDAN 2 

. '■ Cross, 30tk Main, J.P. Nagar I Phase, Bangalore 78 
Crass, 7th Blade Jeyanagar, Bangalore SI 



12. ACTIVITY-TIME BUDGET OF END 1 MYNA ACRIDOTHERES TRISTIS 

(LINNAEUS) DUR^G THE BF.ES "0- SEASON 

(With two text-figures) . ., 



The Indian myna Acridotheres tristis (Linnaeus) 
is a familiar urban species and a hole-nester. Prm- 
cipally, its breeding season is between April and July, 
At night, in »' ! seasons they roost communally., in 
large groups. 

The activity-time budgets in mynas was studied 
from 0600 to 1900 hrs from 3 April to 30 June 1978. 
TJ study was carried out in Pane, Maharashtra 
(18°30'N, 73°53' E) particularly in two resides ' 
colonies and the earn; t of the University of Poona. 
Solitary and paired mynas were selected randomly 
and followed till they went out of sight. Their ac- 
tivities were recorded on a tape recorder. Each ac- 
tivity was then measured in seconds and allotted to 
the following relevant major categories for eacii hour 
on a particular day of observation. 

The activities were divided into eight major and 
several sub-categories as: (1) Nesting (billing, 
mating, bringing ne&iing material, and silting at the 
nest) — presumably for guarding or incubation of 
eggs and maintenance of nest. (2) Scanning (scanning 
the environs in general, mouth opening and resting). 
(3) Locomotion (jumping, hopping, walking and 
flying). (4) Feeding (food searching, picking of food, 
drinking and droppings). (5) Calls (Sight intention 
calls, bowing calls, communication calls, alarm calls, 
aggressive vocalizations and diurnal communal 
calls). (6) Preening (cleaning or removing of foreign 
particles from head, neck, body, wings, tail; retaining 



in conditio!) while sitting). (7) Shaking 
(■'; : ' . \ body, wings, tail, rubbing of beak 

after feed; ' ing or preening activity; stretching 

of legs, and wing flapping while in sitting position). 
(8) fractions (jostling during food search or in play, 






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TYPE OF ACTIVITY 

Fig. 1. Comparison of time spent in various activities by 
mynaa dunns; the breeding season, 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 






97 



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j — Shaking 




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TIME OF THE DAY 



Fig. 2. Activity-time budgets of mynas during different 

hours of the day. 

chasing and interactions with oilier species o r 1 ; rds). 

Data collected for about 74 hours was analysed. 
The percentage of total time utilised for each major 
activity was then calculated (Fig. 1). The activity- 
time budgets for the different hours of the day are 
shown in Fig. 2. The figures indicate that: 

Nesting activity was the predominant activity 
(42%) during daytime. It decreased slightly in the 
afternoon between 1300 and 1400 hrs and further 
declined after 1700 hrs, 

Throughout the day mynas were busy in scan- 



ning the environs. This was the second most impor- 
tant activity (28%), probably because it relates to 
anti-predatory behaviour. This activity increased in 
the morning and in the afternoon between 1300 and 
1400 hrs and again after 18QQ-hrs. 

The time spent in locomotion (12%) and in 
feeding (4%) activities., were more or less directly 
proportional to each other, as locomotion is mainly 
related with food finding activity. The feeding ac- 
tivity was more in the morning between 06,00 and 
0800 hrs and in the evenly (17QQ hrs) well U.ibre 
roosting. 

Mynas made various calls throughout the day 
and spent about 7% of the total time calling. This 
activity was relatively higher jn the. morning around 
0900 hrs, then in the afternoon between 1300 and 
1400 his and late in the evening after 1800 hrs. '; ais 
activity ihus seems to be closely related to spanning. 

The remaining activities such as preening (3%), 
shaking (2.5%), and mutual matractions (1.5%) took 
considerably less time as compared to the other major 
activities. Preening activity slightly increased (along 
with scanning) in the afternoon and late in the eve- 
ning. . 

i he exact time spent in rest: r activity, during 
daytime was rather difficult to assess, but at night 
mynas sleep at the communal loost. Time spent in 
such communal roosts varies monthly and depends 
upon the time of sunset and sunrise. The total time 
spent in sleep during the study period was estimated 
as about 695 min. in April, 655 min. in May and 640 
min. in Ji ne 1978. 

The nesting activity was the highest as an- 
ticipated since the study period coincided with the 
peak breeding season. Further, it would be interesting 
to study the time-budgets of laying, incubation, brood 
development separately by males and females; and 
also the various activities performed during the non- 
breeding season. 

December 7, 1991 ANIL MAHABAL 

Zoological Survey of India, High Altitude Zoology Field 
Station, Solan, Himauhul Pradesh 173212 



13. BREEDING RECORD OF FERRUGINOUS FLYCATCHER 
MUSCICAPA FERRUGINEA (HODGSON) 



-, 

The ferruginous flycatcher Muscicapa fer- 
ruginea was often seen during my visit to Talley val- 
'.-•> i T :=■'" ' snsiri ''■' : ■• ^ssarn from 19 June 



to 24 June 1991. The sightings were made at altitudes 
varying from c. 1525 m to c. 2135 m in darker areas 
in temperate broad leaved fore! ts. At one place two